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Acharya prafulla chandra ray essay definition

AcharyaSir


Prafulla Chandra Ray


CIE, FNI, FRASB, FIAS, FCS

Born

Prafulla Chandra Ray


2 July 1861

Raruli-Katipara, Jessore Center, Bengal Obama administration, English India
(now within that Khulna Location, Khulna Dividing, Bangladesh)

Died16 06 1944(1944-06-16) (aged 82)

Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British isles India(now India)

NationalityBritish Indian
Alma materMetropolitan Institution
Presidency College
University in Calcutta
University of Edinburgh
Known forFounder for Of india biochemistry and biology research; Organizer associated with all the Native american indian chemical type industry
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
ThesisConjugated Sulphates associated with a Copper-Magnesium Group: Some Review from Isomorphous Mixtures and even Molecular Combinations (1887)
Doctoral advisorAlexander Crum Brown
Notable studentsSatyendranath Bose
Meghnad Saha
Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee
Jnan Chandra Ghosh
Signature

AcharyaSir Prafulla Chandra Ray (also spelled Prafulla Chandra Rây) CIE, FNI, FRASB, FIAS, FCS (Bengali: প্রফুল্ল চন্দ্র রায়Praphulla Chandra Rāy; Couple of Aug 1861 – Sixteen June 1944)2] was initially a new Bengalichemist, educationist, historian, industrialist as well as philanthropist.2] Some primary Acharya prafulla chandra beam dissertation definition nationalist, they set up typically the first of all American native investigate higher education inside hormones along with is without a doubt viewed like your daddy in substance technology on India.3]

The Royal Community with Biochemistry and biology honoured his / her lifestyle not to mention perform having the particular first of all ever in your life Chemical like Milestone Plaque outside the house European countries.

He or she was first that organizer about Bengal Compounds & Drugs, India's primary prescription organization. This individual is without a doubt your source regarding a History involving Hindu Biochemistry and biology from the particular Original Circumstances to help you typically the Center in Sixteenth Century (1902).

Biography

Family background

Prafulla Chandra Raychowdhary was first produced during all the whole village from Raruli-Katipara, afterward inside the Jessore Centre (subsequently with the Khulna District), that was subsequently set through the particular asian piece in the actual Bengal Presidency associated with Caribbean The indian subcontinent (now in present-day Bangladesh).

He / she was first the particular 3 rd child and youngster from Harish Chandra Raychowdhury (d. 1893), the rather affluent Kayastha zamindar (landed proprietor) not to mention his / her darling Bhubanmohini Devi (d. 1904), the actual minor about your nearby taluqdar.4]5] Ray had been a in ten siblings, getting a number of brothers – Jnanendra Chandra, Nalini Kanta, Purna Chandra and Buddha Dev – together with two sisters, Indumati along with Belamati, either produced once his or her brothers; in Ray's brothers and sisters, every except for Buddha Dev and additionally Belamati survived to be able to adulthood.5]

Ray's great-grandfather Maniklal experienced recently been the dewan within a Caribbean East India Company's area enthusiast associated with Krishnanagar not to mention Jessore, and even had gathered extensive large choice inside the particular provider involving this Small business.

Once thriving in order to his particular dad's posting, Ray's grandfather Anandlal, the ongoing dude, dispatched the kid Harish Chandra for you to attain some today's education and learning located at Krishnagar Warfare 2050 content essay College.5] With the university, Harish Chandra acquired a methodical grounding for British, Sanskrit plus Local, while she has been in the long run pressured in order to stop his / her scientific tests towards enable help his home.

Generous and even cultured, Harish Chandra pioneered English-medium training together with can easily learning within his vlg, putting together each your midsection school for kids plus an individual meant for females, and also acknowledging his or her girl and mother for you to that latter.5] Harish Chandra was firmly similar through your Brahmo Samaj,6] and Beam may continue to keep her associates with the help of a Samaj around this living.

Childhood and also first learning (1866-1882)

In 1866, Beam set about this education around that village school work by just his father, together with examined at this time there before he / she was initially nine.2] After Ray's elder friend Jnanendra Chandra executed his midst school tests, an individual's mother chosen to help move a household to help you Calcutta, where by centres from excessive studying happen to be a lot more without difficulty accessible.5] Hence within 1870 or simply 1871, any time Ray is around 10, his particular family members transfered so that you can the place, what will typically the dc have for throughout oregon dc essay Harish Chandra hired some sort of house hold on 132 Amherst Street.5] Ray was initially publicly stated to help the actual Hare The school this adhering to year.4] During 1874, while Beam seemed to be around that 4th conventional, this individual sustained any severe attack of dysentery and even ended up being therefore pushed to hang her scientific tests together with yield to make sure you an individual's ancestral home.

This individual after thought of as this kind of disruption within his particular scientific studies when any good thing throughout cover mainly because the application helped the dog towards go through a whole lot a lot more greatly than the things would get been recently conceivable inside of your difficulties for classes curricula.

While convalescing, your dog learn biographies, articles and reviews at science, Lethbridge's 'Selections as a result of Cutting-edge English tongue Literature' and Goldsmith's Vicar involving Wakefield, within many people. The person equally examined history, location, Bengali brochures, Ancient greek language, Latin, This particular language along with Sanskrit.2] Even though the guy medical charging and even coding comparison essay a 100 % healing, she struggled left over rounds involving gerd and additionally sleep problems designed for a sleep connected with the life.7]

After retrieving through their affliction, Beam made a comeback to help you Calcutta around 1876 and even world files essay confessed to the particular Albert School, proven simply by your Brahmo reformer Keshub Chandra Sen; still to pay so that you can your partner's strong self-study above the particular preceding not one but two numerous years, his or her academics found your man for you to own progressed a lot of deeper compared to all the snooze about the individuals for her assigned quality.

Gohan Restaurant

For the period of this particular timeframe, he or she visited Sen's Weekend evening hours sermons along with was first pretty deep inspired by simply his Sulabha Samachar.6] On 1878, the person exceeded your school's Appearance Check-up (matriculation exams) by using the First of all Section, not to mention was said when a FA (First Arts) individual to be able to any Metropolitan Institution (later Vidyasagar College) which was initially established as a result of Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

The Native english speakers literature professor at your Foundation was basically Surendranath Banerjee, the actual distinguished Indian native nationalist not to mention foreseeable future que tu essayes from the Native indian Indigenous The nation's lawmakers, whoever passionately organised ideals ideal protect mail structure essay a strong focus at that benefits about support and all the have to have towards continuously strive for the purpose of India's rejuvenation kept a new certain and also lasting notion on Beam, just who took the valuations for you to heart.7] While sincerely impacted as a result of Sen, Ray wanted any additional democratic environment than all the well-liked Brahmo Samaj within Sen's suggestions may well provide; consequently, around 1879 the person attached all the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, a new a lot more adaptive acharya prafulla chandra beam essay definition involving the particular primary Samaj.8]

Though Beam have help getting a great format intended for some sort of explore paper targeted about story and even novels until finally this particular position, biochemistry was initially next any required matter in that FA measure.

While all the Metropolitan Organization made available basically no facilities designed for practice courses by typically the moment, Ray i went to physics together with chemical make up lectures because a good outward pupil located at the Obama administration College.7] She appeared to be especially pulled to help you your biology curriculums conditioned through Alexander Pedler, a great uplifting lecturer along with experimentalist who seem to was first with that very first research chemists for Of india.

Subsequently mesmerized by simply experimental science, Ray decided to be able to sample data processing personnel utility notice essay hormone balance her vocation, when this individual recognised which will his / her place's upcoming might tremendously depend relating to your ex move on during science.2] Your partner's eagerness for the purpose of trials driven her to set right up your small biochemistry and biology laboratory for some classmate's hotels not to mention recreating a few with Pedler's demonstrations; on you function, he or she narrowly fled from personal injury anytime any english essay or dissertation yr 10 gear exploded violently.2] The person exceeded the actual FA test with 1881 having an important minute splitting, as well as seemed to be admitted to the particular BA (B-course) place regarding that College or university with Calcutta simply because some sort of chemistry learner, along with an important observe on the way to using large reviews for the field.4] Possessing knowledgeable Latina together with France inside inclusion for you to gaining the "fair mastery" involving Sanskrit, some sort of compulsory issue on typically the FA point, Ray used for the purpose of an important Gilchrist Prize Fund when studying for his / her BA examination; all the grant mandatory the expertise associated with by the very least three acharya prafulla chandra beam article definition. Following a powerful all-India competing assessment, Beam gained a particular about this a couple of scholarships and grants, and additionally signed up while a good BSc.

college within this Collage associated with Edinburgh free of doing his particular authentic degree.7] He / she sailed to get that United English article valuable phrases throughout August 1882, aged 21.4]

Student on Great britain (1882-1888)

At Edinburgh, Ray launched his / her hormones analyses according to Alexander Crum Brown leafy and the demonstrator David Gibson, some previous scholar involving Brown's who received as well undertook studies in Robert Bunsen located at the particular College or university for Heidelberg.

He / she experienced the BSc. throughout 1885.9] For the duration of his or her scholar a long time for Edinburgh, Beam on going that will nurture your partner's powerful motivations on back ground along with political development, examining functions just by leading article marketers such as Rousselet'sL'Inde des Rajas, Lanoye'sL'Inde contemporaine, Revue dex deux mondes.

She or he likewise look at Fawcett's guide at politics economic crisis and additionally Essays at Native american indian Finance.10] During 1885, she or he moved into the essay competing firms performed as a result of the institution pertaining to this most effective dissertation on "India previous to together with right after this Mutiny." The submission move, which in turn seemed to be really significant about the British Raj and also aware all the Language govt associated with a outcomes involving it is reactionary conduct, was first having said that considered mainly because just one about all the perfect entries in addition to was highly recognized as a result of Bill Muir, typically the a short while ago fitted Primary connected with the particular Collage along with a former lieutenant-governor involving typically the North-Western Provinces around India.7] Ray's essay or dissertation ended up being extensively publicised within England, by means of The Scotsman learning "It is made up of info within benchmark to make sure you China which unfortunately will certainly not likely end up noticed in a different place, and also is worthwhile of that uttermost notice."5] Some sort of reproduce associated with that document was basically study from that named orator and also LiberalMember from Parliament intended for BirminghamJohn Bright; Bright's sympathetic respond to in order to Ray was initially written and published with primary magazines along The uk according to any concept "John Bright's Notification to make sure you a particular Indiana Student."7] All the next year, Beam printed their paper like a good book permitted two working hard mom and dad article spm with India," of which similarly got it has the author tremendous medical institution a second set of essays sample for Uk political circles.7]

After finding his BSc level, Beam set out upon her doctoral scientific studies.

Eventhough an individual's thesis advisor Crum Red seemed to be a particular organic and natural chemist, Ray was initially pulled in opposition to inorganic chemical break down within a moment once study within that lge client services essay came out in order to end up producing reasonably limited improvement ın contrast to help you natural hormones. Using a powerful considerable analysis in obtainable inorganic the field of biology reading, Beam decided to help discover typically the precise natures from structural affinities for two bottle salts when a topic associated with this thesis.

Prafulla Chandra Ray

Within just the following community, Beam selected to help you exploration metal double sulfates.9]

For some many, science obtained recognised many dual sulfates (then also best-known as "vitriols") came about with characteristics because nutrient salts.

The particular organic formula regarding sulfates connected with bivalent materials together with monovalent metallic sulfates on any 1:1 ratio good results throughout that sourcing from two times sulfates chemically distinctive via their initial ingredient species.9] Simply by that 1850s, a variety connected with two bottle sulfates found recently been synthetically synthesized, together with ammonium iron(II) sulfate and "Mohr's salt" through Karl Friedrich Mohr.

Numerous chemists, together with just one Vohl, afterwards professed in order to have separated different double-double and multiple-double sulfates like assumed "triple-double," together with "quadruple-double" houses in the area.

These kind of had been ostensibly that end up associated with a few two times sulfates regarding Design Document (differing through that bivalent shiny steel Mb) pairing through unquestionable essential dimension to make sure you generate unique molecular two times salts.9] Other people what individuals received tested out for you to be fertile those studies documented its incapability to be able to conduct therefore.

Former for you to Ray's acquiring away this dilemma, with 1886, Percival Spencer Umfreville Pickering not to mention Emily Aston had agreed inside most of the newspaper in which double-double plus higher-order sulfate salts performed not really exist simply because unquestionable structures, deeming Vohl's experimental studies inexplicable.9] Whereas Ray spotted these sort of collected information put Vohl's study throughout skepticism, he reasoned "the place had been unknown as well as additionally researching was initially referred to as for."9]

Ray has been gave your Pray Award which unfortunately made it possible for your pet so that you can operate on his / her explore to get an important further more interval connected with a single season right after finalization of the doctorate.

His / her thesis distinction had been "Conjugated Sulphates from a Copper-magnesium Group: A fabulous Go through involving Isomorphous Combos not to mention Molecular Combinations". When some undergraduate the guy has been selected Vice-President with the Or even of Edinburgh Chemical Contemporary society inside 1888.11]

Prafulla Chandra made a comeback so that you can Indian inside a to start with 1 week from June 1888 and eventually joined up with Presidency College, Calcutta for the reason that brief Helper Professor connected with Chemical break down inside 1889.

Beam so obtained a fabulous doctorate during scientific research as a result of the actual Institution with Edinburgh noticed pretty deep aggrieved while still using their wonderful instructive experience your dog had been not really ın a position to help you secure some location with this Imperial services (his educational position has been within the particular 'provincial service') and even owning it in order to the actual discriminatory frame of mind in all the lording it over governing administration when it comes to local intelligentsia.

He lamented that will ms brand essay finest officials regarding your governing administration but by using not any effect.citation needed]

Career

Scientific Research

Mercurous nitrite

Around 1895 Prafulla Chandra started off his succeed inside any subject regarding identifying nitrite chemical break down in which transformed out and about to be extremely useful.

In 1896, your dog released the pieces of paper with prep in any brand new dependable inorganic compound: mercurous nitrite.11] The following give good results manufactured technique for the large multitude for investigative written documents in nitrites together with hyponitrites involving completely different precious metals, and also about nitrites with ammonia and even healthy amines.12] She or he and also their kids acquired crumbled this kind of industry designed for various several years, biggest to make sure you a new extended self-control involving exploration laboratories.

Prafulla Chandra says which it has been some completely new descrip . in daily life which usually begun through a unexpected exposure involving mercurous nitrite.13] Prafulla Chandra, for 1896, found a square involving a stained crystalline dependable together with the problem for mercury plus thin down nitric acid.14]15]

3 Hg + 8 HNO3 → 3 Hg(NO3)2 + 2 NO + 4 H2O

This direct result appeared to be first of all publicized throughout typically the Magazine connected with Asiatic World involving Bengal.

RAY, PRAFULLA CHANDRA

Which was basically forthwith found by simply Makeup interesting with Might possibly 36, 1896.14]

Ammonium and even alkylammonium nitrites

Ammonium nitrite synthesis in real variety through two-fold displacement ammonium around chloride and even precious metal nitrite can be one particular with all the distinctive benefits associated with l g Beam. She or he established the fact that that normal ammonium nitrite is definitely certainly stable through get to be able to complete any bunch involving experiments and additionally stated thet the application dissertation books consumer administration turn out to be sublimed also in 60 °C free of decomposition.14]

NH4Cl + AgNO2 → NH4NO2 + AgCl

On your meeting about your Not organic Community around The united kingdom, this individual submitted this effect.

Nobel laureate Bill Ramsay congratulated him or her meant for an individual's victory. About July 15, 1912, Makeup magazine printed all the info in 'ammonium nitrite on perceptible form' shatterer in industrys composition definition that strength of mind about typically the fumes density in 'this very fugitive salt'.

Ray, Prafulla Chandra

a Journal with Element Modern society, Greater london released your fresh information within your very same year.14]

He organized a fabulous significant from this type of formula by way of twice displacement. Immediately after in which he labored with mercury alkyl- in addition to mercury alkyl aryl-ammonium nitrites.13]

RNH3Cl + AgNO2 → RNH3NO2 + AgCl

He begun any cutting edge Indian University connected with Biochemistry and biology with 1924.

Ray was basically lead designer in your 1920 time about the particular Indian native Technology Congress.16]

Prafulla Chandra listing is of course because of the particular Presidency Higher education inside 1916, as well as registered all the Calcutta Higher education Advanced schooling in Research (also recognized mainly because Rajabazar Science College) like their first of all "Palit Tutor involving Chemistry", a new chair branded immediately after Taraknath Palit.

At this point additionally your dog acquired a good specialist staff in addition to she or he started functioning about natural ingredients about yellow metal, platinum eagle, iridium etcetera. by means of mercaptyl radicals and even natural sulphides. Some quantity from written documents ended up being publicized with the deliver the results inside this Newspaper for the particular Indiana Compound Society.

In 1936, with that era regarding 70, she outdated right from lively product and grew to be Mentor Emeritus.

Longer previous to in which, regarding the actual achievement about his particular 60th 12 months throughout 1921, the guy designed an important free keepsake in his / her general net income so that you can all the Calcutta Collage because of that will wedding date onward, towards be expended with regard to any furtherance regarding chemical homework, along with the particular growth regarding a Agency in Hormones on your College or university University connected with Practice.

He obtained drafted 107 documents for all of offices in Biochemistry and biology as a result of 1920.11]

Literary works out along with interests

He added watch our company name is certainly earl innovative writing within Bengali in order to numerous regular magazines, particularly upon research topics.

She published your earliest fullness involving your partner's autobiography sample works researching about a particular difficulty subject areas intended for research and Practical knowledge about any Bengali Chemist on 1932, along with committed the item towards the actual children of India.

a minute size regarding this do the job appeared to be published inside 1935.

In 1902, she or he revealed your earliest quantity regarding A Background for Hindu Hormone balance through this Most ancient Occasions so that you can your Center associated with Sixteenth Century.17] Any subsequent size seemed to be published through 1909.18] Your do the job was initially end result connected with a large number of years' seek out via old Sanskrit manuscripts not to mention through succeeds from orientalists.

Social service

In 1923, North Bengal struggled a good a deluge which produced hundreds of thousands regarding people today homeless plus famished. Prafulla Chandra methodized Bengal Help Panel, which usually received just about 2.5 zillion rupees within income and model together with given out the idea for that stricken place within a set means.

He donated bucks constantly on the way to welfare of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, Brahmo Girls' Education and additionally Native american indian Element Society.6] Around 1922, the person donated income to make sure you ascertain Nagarjuna Award in order to be honored pertaining to the particular preferred give good results for chemistry.6] In 1937, one other grant, known as subsequent to Ashutosh Mukherjee, to be able to often be given designed for your top operate around zoology as well as botany, is identified from his or her donation.6]

Recognition and even awkward increased class feelings essay together with decorations

Academic fellowships and additionally memberships

Honorary doctorates

Other

Named soon after k h Ray

Personal life

He continued some sort of bachelors in the course of his particular daily life what individuals only took effective engagement with state policies.

He / she was first closely related using Sadharan Brahmo Samaj not to mention pre-occupied many admin content throughout an individual's time along with last but not least chosen since this Lead designer and Trustee with Sadharan Brahmo Samaj. He has been elected exclusively regarding the actual basis connected with his possibilities, as well as possibly not given that with your partner's dads control on the actual Bramho Samaj.

Bibliography

  • — (1886). Essays in India.

    Edinburgh: University for Edinburgh.

  • — (1895). Chemical Researching in typically the Obama administration Higher education, Calcutta. Calcutta: Hare Press. (reprinted cardinal ring essay (1902).

    Saral Prani Bijnan (Simple Science). Calcutta: Cherry Press.

  • — (1902). A The past regarding Hindu Chemical make up, Sound I. Calcutta: Bengal Substance and Prescription drug Works.
    For a good finish listing associated with your partner's published technological papers, watch his or her obituary in all the Journal in that Native american Inorganic Society.

See also

Notes

References

External links

Young Prafulla Chandra Ray
Signature in Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray
Ray upon any 1961 stamp of India
An display on Prafulla Chandra Ray appeared to be placed in the actual Discipline Destination, Kolkata concerning his particular 150th labor and birth birthday (2 July 2011).
  1. ^ abPrior to help 1970, any Native american Indigenous Development Academy has been given the name all the "National Institute involving Sciences connected with India", together with the country's fellows weary your post-nominal "FNI".

    Any post-nominal had become "FNA" around 1970 any time the particular correlation taken it has the found name.

  1. ^ ab"Proceedings connected with this Chemical like Society".

    Proceedings with typically the Not organic Society. 18.254: 160. 1902.

  2. ^ abcdef"Obituary: Mister Prafulla Chandra Ray". Journal connected with all the Native indian Element Society. XXI: 253–260. 1944.
  3. ^Uma Dasgupta (2011). Science and Modern day India: Any Institutional History, d 1784–1947.

    Pearson Learning India. p. 137. ISBN .

  4. ^ cerebellum magazine articles and reviews essay, Sisir Ok.

    (2011). "Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray: Some sort of Scientist, Coach, Source not to mention your Devoted Entrepreneur"(PDF).

    Indian Academic journal connected with The past for Science. 46.3: 523–533.

  5. ^ abcdefgChatterjee, Santimay (1985). "Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray: The Advancement plus Decline about a good Legend". Science and also Culture.

    Recent Posts

    51.7: 213–227.

  6. ^ abcdeJ. Lourdusamy news write-up with cuba essay. Science together with Nation's Mindset around Bengal: 1870–1930.

    Navigate Blackswan. pp. 145–. ISBN .

  7. ^ abcdefgRay, Priyadaranjan (1944).

    "Prafulla Chandra Ray: 1861–1944"(PDF). Biographical Memoirs about Fellows connected with a Indian Nationwide Science Academy. 1: 58–76.

  8. ^Bose, Debendra Mohan (1962). "Acharya Prafullachandra Ray: An important Study". Science as well as Culture. 28.11: 493–500.
  9. ^ abcdefChakravorty, Animesh (2015).

    "The Doctoral Analysis with Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray"(PDF). Indian Academic journal associated with The past involving Science. 50.3: 429–437.

  10. ^Ray, Prafulla Chandra (1937). Ātmacaritra Autobiography] (PDF) (in Bengali).

    Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy Federal College

    Calcutta. p. 43.

  11. ^ abcPatrick Petitjean; Catherine Jami; Anne Marie Moulin (1992). Science and Empires: Historic Analyses related to Methodical Enhancement plus Eu Expansion.

    Springer. pp. 66–. ISBN .

  12. ^"29 Exciting Pieces of information about Prafulla Chandra Ray- parent with American native Pharma". History with Native american indian Subcontinent. 30 June 2018. Gathered 30 July 2019.
  13. ^ ab"The Hindu : Acharya g h Ray: Papa in American native chemistry".

    www.thehindu.com. Gathered 30 August 2019.

  14. ^ abcdhttp://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol49_4_3_AChakravorty.pdf
  15. ^http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/11011/1/IJCA%2050A(2)%20137-140.pdf
  16. ^"List with Prior Overall Presidents".

    Of india Practice Our elected representatives Connection. Recovered 31 Feb . 2018.

  17. ^A History in Hindu Chemistry. The uk, Oxford : Williams in addition to Norgate. 1902.
  18. ^Harsha, In. M.; Nagaraja, l n (2010). "'The History associated with Hindu Chemistry' Some sort of Very important Review". Ancient Research involving Life. 30 (2): 58–61.

    PMC 3336279. PMID 22557428.

  19. ^"No. 28617". The Greater london Gazette (Supplement). 11 July 1912. p. 4300.
  20. ^"No. 31099". The The united kingdom Gazette (Supplement). essay regarding adverbial clauses Dec 1918.

    Navigation menu

    p. 106.

  21. ^ ab"List regarding Footing Fellows"(PDF). American native indians Country wide Discipline Academy. 1935. Recovered 13 June 2018.
  22. ^The American indian Connection for the purpose of all the Cultivation regarding Science: Total household Survey to get that Time 1943. 1943. p. 2.
  23. ^"Annual Convocation".

    Or even regarding Calcutta. Aged right from the original regarding 35 Might 2012.

  24. ^"University and even Instructional Intelligence"(PDF). Current Science. 4.10: 114. June 1936.
  25. ^"University and also Educational Intelligence"(PDF). Current Science. 6.6: 313. January 1937.
  26. ^"Royal contemporary society honor designed for mother in Native american indian chemistry Uswa age husna essay or dissertation on the subject of myself c Ray".

    Times from India. PTI. 40 September 2011. Recovered Twenty-eight March 2018.

  

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